Małgorzata Szewczyńska*, Małgorzata Pośniak*, Joanna Dąbrowska**, Krystyna Pyrzyńska**
*Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy – PIB; **Uniwersytet Warszawski
Particulate matter and chemical substances adsorbed by it, such as car-cinogenic PAHs, are of massive significance and may negatively impact hu-man health due to the place where they accumulate within the human body, as mentioned in the introduction. The conducted studies have indicated that in addition to diesel engines, also petrol engines may be a potential source of environmental pollution with ultra-fine particles. The text presents the results of the study of carcinogenic substances (PAH) in particulate matter emitted in the exhaust gases of diesel and petrol engines. An Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) was used to measure the size of particulate matter in real time and to establish the distribution of par-ticulate matter size present in the exhaust gases. Also using the ELPI, frac-tions smaller than 0.25 µm were separated and then, in order to establish PAH concentrations, the material collected on the impactor level filters cutting off the 0.4-0.03 µm fractions was analysed. The observed numerical, dimensional, surface, volume and mass concentration distribution values for the exhaust gases from a petrol engine corresponded to, respectively, 0.93; 0.75; 0.89; 2.05; and 1.38% of the values recorded for diesel exhaust gases. The calculated aver-age PAH concentrations adsorbed on small fractions for emissions from the tested engines also indicated a reduction of emissions of tested compounds in the case of petrol engine operation. The largest total PAH concentration, i.e. 35 ng m-3, was marked in fractions smaller than 0.1 µm of fine particulate matter emitted in diesel engine exhaust, whereas in the case of a petrol en-gine, it amounted to 11 ng m-3 and was marked in the 0.4 µm fraction. Benzo(a)pyrene was at a maximum concentration of 1.3 ng m-3 in the fine particulate matter fraction with the aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 µm in the diesel engine exhaust gases and respectively in the 0.4 µm fraction in the petrol engine exhaust gases. Measurements have indicated that the particulate matter in fraction below 0.4 µm is emitted into the environment by the emis-sions from diesel engine exhaust and, to a lesser degree, also from petrol en-gine exhaust. The studies have not indicated the tendency of individual PAH com-pounds to be adsorbed only on single fractions of particulate matter with spe-cific dimensions.
substancje rakotwórcze, wielopierścieniowe węglowodory aromatyczne (WWA), rozkład cząstek drobnych, spaliny Diesla, spaliny z benzyny
The Distributin of Concentrations Carcinogenic Substances in Fractions of Fine Particles Emitted During the Operation of Motor Vehicles
carcinogenic substances, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, particle size distribution; motor vehicles, Diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust
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