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Barbara Uliasz-Misiak
AGH Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza

Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide is a non-hydrocarbon component of natural gas. Natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide and / or carbon dioxide is classified as acid gas, which accounts for about one third of global conventional natural gas resources.
Hydrogen sulfide in Polish hydrocarbon deposits has been found in the deposits of natural gas and oil fields with accompanying natural gas located in the Polish Lowland and in the Carpathian Foredeep.
Most of the deposits containing hydrogen sulfide are located in Permian and Upper Devonian formations of the Polish Lowland. Concentrations of hydrogen sulfide are ranging from about 0.01% to 12–13% by volume. In the Carpathian Foredeep, H2S is present in hydrocarbon deposits accumulated in the Jurassic and Miocene formations, where its content ranges from 0.06% to 1.5% by volume.
Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas; concentrations in a range of 7000 mg/m3 are lethal for living organisms. It is one of the gases responsible for acid rains, which have a negative impact on living organisms, soil and water.
Environmental risk associated with the hydrogen sulfide is one of the most serious natural hazards occurring in the borehole mining, during both drilling and exploitation of the hydrocarbon deposits.
During drilling, the greatest risk is associated with emergency situations (uncontrolled outflows or damage to the equipment). It should be noted that uncontrolled outflows of reservoir fluids or drilling fluids containing hydrogen sulfide, when H2S is released into the atmosphere, are especially dangerous to humans, living organisms and the environment.
Hydrogen sulfide emissions during the exploitation can be associated with both mining and emergency situations. Hydrogen sulfide leak may occur in the following devices: production trees, pipework, pumps, valves, pipelines; in case of oil deposits these devices include gas flares, separators and oil tanks.
Environmental risk was estimated for emergency situations that may arise in the course of drilling and mining of hydrocarbon deposits containing hydrogen sulfide. Based on the analysis of the impact of hydrogen sulfide on humans, living organisms and the environment, five categories of consequences of adverse outcomes, considering the impact on living organisms and the environment, have been defined.

Słowa kluczowe:
ryzyko środowiskowe, siarkowodór, złoża ropy i gazu

090. Environmental Risk Associated with Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Deposits Containing Hydrogen Sulfide

Keywords:
environmental risk, hydrogen sulfide, oil and gas deposit

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Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego